In this paper, a new, non-psychological and non-sociological approach to understanding creativity is proposed. The approach is based on autopoietic system theory, where an autopoietic system is defined as a unity whose organization is defined by a particular network of production processes of elements.
Autopoiesis and Cognition: The Realization of the Living is a work in systems theory and the philosophy of biology by Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela.It was first published under the title De Maquinas y Seres Vivos (English: 'On Machines and Living Beings') in 1972 in Chile by Editorial Univeritaria S.A., with a second edition published in 1980 in by the D. Reidel Publishing Company.
This leads to the approach to social autopoiesis adopted by Luhmann and it is the Luhmannian approach that is most commonly appealed to by contributors to this volume. For Luhmann, it is the linguistic domain (communicative acts) which gives rise to social relations and which in turn are constituted in and through the social domain. This domain is dependent on the pre-existence of the.
Nicklas Luhmann (1986, 1990, 1995) has started a significant school of social systems theory with his variant concept of autopoiesis based on systems of interaction on the level of disembodied information flows (Google gives more than 5,700 hits on (autopoiesis luhmann)). Assuming that I understand Luhmann's ideas correctly (I don't read German and am just coming to grips with the large.
Essays on self-reference I Niklas Luhmann. p. em. Includes biliographical references. ISBN 0-231-06368-7 1. Social systems. 2. Autopoiesis. 3. Communication-Social aspects. I. Title. HMI3I.L817 1990 89-23905 CIP 302.2-dc20 Case bound editions of Columbia University Press books are Smyth-sewn and printed on permanent and durable acid-free paper.
Meaning (). Autopoiesis was originally presented as a system description that was said to define and explain the nature of living systems.A canonical example of an autopoietic system is the biological cell.The eukaryotic cell, for example, is made of various biochemical components such as nucleic acids and proteins, and is organized into bounded structures such as the cell nucleus, various.
The most notable of the European social thinkers using autopoiesis was Nicklas Luhmann, who based his Social Systems Theory (e.g., Essays of Self-Reference (1990), Social Systems (1995), and Theories of Distinction (W. Rasch, ed. - 1995) on what Hall and Nousala claim is a fundamental misunderstanding of the self-referentially recursive nature of autopoiesis. For example, Luhmann and his.
Luhmann likens the operation of autopoiesis (the filtering and processing of information from the environment) to a program, making a series of logical distinctions (in German, Unterscheidungen). Here, Luhmann refers to the British mathematician G. Spencer-Brown 's logic of distinctions that Maturana and Varela had earlier identified as a model for the functioning of any cognitive process.
Here I will connect the conceptual linkage of autopoiesis and Gaia theory to the wider discourse of self-referential systems. Autopoiesis marks a reorientation “from interest in design and control to an interest in autonomy and environmental sensitivity, from planning to evolution, from structural stability to dynamic stability” (Luhmann, Social Systems 10).
Luhmann,N. (1990) The Autopoiesis of Social Systems, Luhmann Essays on Self Reference, Columbia Univ. Press. Margulis,L. and Sagan,D. (1997) Microcosmos: Four Billion Years of Evolution from Our Microbial Ancestors, Univ. California Press.
Without going into detail, the system's ability to maintain closure and openness at the same time requires that these social systems be classified as nonliving (Luhmann, 1986a). Self-reference is a process of autopoiesis that refers to something beyond itself and then returns to itself. Self-reference and external reference are examples of.
Niklas Luhmann ranks as one of the most important sociologists and social theorists of the twentieth century. Through his many books he developed a highly original form of systems theory that has been hugely influential in a wide variety of disciplines. In Introduction to Systems Theory, Luhmann explains the key ideas of general and sociological systems theory and supplies a wealth of examples.